Respiratory Diseases and Disorders (Human Body)

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They produce mucus that normally drains into the nasal cavities. Airborne allergens and viral or bacterial infections can inflame the mucous membranes. The inflammation blocks the sinus openings and prevents the mucus from draining. This is a common condition known as sinusitis. Once inhaled, the flu virus moves into the respiratory tract and enters epithelial cells that line the airways.

Infection spreads as the virus replicates, destroying host cells and moving into the bloodstream.

Inhalation disorders

The body's immune response causes high fever, chills, and muscle aches. The thoracic cage, or rib cage, normally protects the lungs. Chest trauma can result in a puncture or tear in lung tissue, however. Air escapes from the tear and builds up between the lung and the chest wall. The air pressure pushes on the outside of the lung until it collapses.

A complete lung collapse is called pneumothorax. Researchers monitor for next novel influenza strain from Science Daily. Breathing In and Speaking Out. In REM phase of sleep, rib-cage inhibition is observed. The respiratory variability is due to cortical effect. Chronic ventilation improves the patient's oxygen saturation in both REM and NREM phases of sleep, less frequency of awakening in night and improves sleep efficiency. Sleep study should be evaluated in patients with primarily non-respiratory conditions, similar to patients who are prone to cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases and identify any underlying respiratory insufficiency increasing risk of the disease.

It may then be a helpful tool in management and treatment of patients suffering from the above-mentioned diseases. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Lung India v. Lung India. Sumer S. Choudhary and Sanjiw R. Sanjiw R.


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Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: ni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

Wake stage In human beings, in the awake and relaxed states with eye closed, EEG shows predominantly alpha activity, especially over the occipital area. Rapid eye movements sleep This period of sleep is characterized by very rapid eye movement, and resembles wakeful pattern but has greatly reduced muscle activity. Non-rapid eye movements sleep Classified into four stages according to the changes seen in EEG. Stage 1 Relaxed wakefulness state with closed eye, exhibit alpha activity in EEG.

Stage 2 Appearance of K complexes large biphasic waves and sleep spindles is seen in this stage. Stages 3 and 4 Appearance of delta waves large amplitude waves. Conventional method of recording at sleep center In this method, the patient has to sleep in the laboratory where the test is to be performed. Multiple sleep latency test and maintenance of wakefulness test This test is performed in patients with daytime sleepiness. Portable home recording There are a number of companies promoting their equipment for portable home recording without validation of the equipment. Autonomic nervous system Onset of sleep and NREM is characterized with increased parasympathetic and decrease sympathetic tone.

Hormonal Most hormones follow circadian and ultra-radian rhythm. Cardiovascular Cardiovascular system is dominated by parasympathetic activity. Respiratory Transitions from wake state to NREM sleep, withdrawal of wakefulness drive results decrease in minute ventilation. Apnea index Average number of apnea occurring during 1 hour of sleep. Apnea hypopnea index Average number of apnea and hypopnea during 1 hour of sleep. Questionnaire to evaluate daytime sleepiness In patients with complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness, the Stanford and Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ Table 1 ] may be used to assess the severity of the symptoms of excessive sleepiness.

Table 1 Epworth sleepiness scale. Sitting and reading Watching television Sitting inactive in a public place eg, a theatre or meeting As a passenger in a car for an hour without a break Lying down to rest in afternoon Sitting and talking to someone Sitting quietly after lunch when you have no alcohol In a car, while stopped in traffic Open in a separate window.

COPD: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis

Terminology for common sleep-related breathing disorders Primary Central Apnea in adults or infants is a condition in which central sleep apnea occurs inherently due to electrical instability in the brain. Primary central apnea Central sleep apnea: Cheyenne stroke breathing, high altitude periodic breathing, drugs barbiturates, morphine, etc , medical conditions hypothyroidism, renal failure, etc Primary sleep apnea of infancy Obstructive sleep apnea Sleep-related non-obstructive alveolar hypoventilation; idiopathic Congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome.

Obstructive pulmonary disease It includes reversible airway disorders as seen in asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and chronic upper airway obstruction due to vocal cord paralysis. Restrictive Lung Disorders Heterogeneous group that limits lung expansion are termed as restrictive lung disorders. Hypoventilation Syndromes Patients with obstructive or restrictive pulmonary disease may experience hypoventilation that reflects mechanical restraint on ventilation as well as effects on dead space increase CO 2 production in pulmonary diseases.

Sleep in the intensive care unit. Aserinsky E, Kleitman N. Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep.

What are the risks linked to smoking?

Nocturnal asthma and changes in circulating epinephrine, histamine and cortisol. N Engl J Med. The retention of lung secretion during night in normal subjects. Clin Sci Mol Med.

Signs and symptoms

Breathing during sleep in patients with nocturnal desaturation. Ventilator adaptation to resistive loading during wakefulness and non-REM sleep's.


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    J Appl Physiol. Transient hypoxemia during sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is not a sleep apnea syndrome. Practice parameters for the use of portable monitoring devices in the investigation of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Hypoxic ventilatory response decreases during sleep in normal men. Hypoxic ventilatory response in sleeping in adults.

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    Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Sleep and neuromuscular disease: Bi-level positive airway pressure by nasal mask as a treatment for sleep disordered breathing in patients with neuromuscular disease. J Neurol Nerurosurg Psychiatry. Quantification of sleepiness: A new approach. Neuromucscular and mechanical responses to inspiratory resistive loading during sleep.

    2. Inflammation and Constriction of the Airways Are Hallmarks of Asthma

    Mechanics of the respiratory system and breathing pattern during sleep in normal humans. J App Physiol. Coughing frequency in patients with persistent cough: Assessment using a hour ambulatory recorder. Eur Respir J.