Sensory Processing Difficulties of Individuals with ASD (ABA Literature Summary Book 6)
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Social implications Findings of this study will help mental health nurses, psychologists, intellectual disability nurses, teachers, public health, social workers, etc. The community mental health nurse can plan video-assisted teaching programme in a community regarding care of children with ASD.
So continuous awareness in primary health centre and community area is necessary to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of primary caregivers. Asaoka H. Difficulties in spontaneously performing level 2 perspective-taking skills in children with autism spectrum disorder.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate why children with autism spectrum disorder ASD tend to respond to tasks from their own perspective. The authors investigated the effects of explicitness of viewpoint on performance of spontaneous level 2 perspective-taking skills in six- to eight-year-old children with ASD.
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Findings In the implicit condition, the authors did not observe a clear developmental change in performance between six- and eight-year-old children in the ASD group. In contrast, performance in the ASD group improved under the explicit condition relative to that under the implicit condition. Therefore, viewpoints should be explicitly instructed to children with ASD. In addition, it is also important to implement training to encourage spontaneous transitions from self-perspective to other-perspective under the implicit condition.
Altakhaineh Abdel Rahman M.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether age plays a role in the acquisition of construct state CS constructions in Arabic by 14 children with autism spectrum disorder ASD. It also examined the challenges faced by children with ASD in producing different types of CS constructions. Finally, the study analysed the sources of difficulties children with ASD encounter during the learning process of the CS. Findings Results revealed that the age of the 14 children with ASD plays a role in the acquisition of CS constructions. Children of age 12—15 performed better than those of age 8 and Results also showed that children with ASD performed better in producing phrases rather than compounds.
Moreover, the participants performed better on endocentric compounds as opposed to exocentric ones. Finally, analysing the errors produced on the text revealed that the acquisition of head direction precedes definiteness.
Withrow Nicole A. The SAMIE will accurately screen nutritional risk by identifying the four primary domains that affect eating in children with autism spectrum disorder ASD. First, a review of the literature was conducted. Second, expert opinion was acquired which was critical in developing the questions.
Third, ten think-aloud protocols were set up to simplify the first draft. Overall, participants did not differ between groups for demographic characteristics, BMI status and dietary intake. Practical implications Due to the complexities of problematic eating behaviors in ASD, there is a need for a comprehensive screening inventory that encompasses the four domains that impact eating in an ASD. These domains have been identified as, namely, aberrant mealtime behavior, eating skills, dietary intake, and sensory processing and have yet to be utilized collectively to screen for nutritional risk in children with ASD.
Erden S. Purpose Savant syndrome, a very rare condition in the world, refers to individuals who have extraordinary talents but might have disabilities that prevent them from maintaining their life. The participants were six instructors who worked as full-time instructors in the conservatory. The participants were administered a semi-structured focus group interview form that described the difficulties, experiences, perceptions and feelings they had in their interactions with BC.
Findings Results showed that the participants had difficulties in teaching BC because of having insufficient knowledge about his features. In addition, while planning the conservatory education processes, the participants were found to redesign the teaching content considering the features of the student. More detailed qualitative studies or action research could be utilised in studies to be conducted in the future. Barnard-Brak L. I do not subscribe to that view.
The hyperlexia is coupled with an intense fascination with letters or numbers. Yet in spite of the intense preoccupation and ability with words, there are, correspondingly, significant problems in understanding verbal language. Comprehension of that which is masterfully read is often poor, and thinking is concrete and literal. There is difficulty with, and paucity of, abstract thinking. I call this group Hyperlexia III. The purpose of this posting is to describe these different types of hyperlexia and to point out the necessity for careful differential diagnosis among them because of differing treatment and outcome implications, along with alleviating some of the unnecessary distress and worry in parents when a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder is applied prematurely and in error to some children who read early.
Generally these children have learned to read before age 5 with little or no training, and have this precocious reading ability combined with language difficulties in spite of accelerated reading ability and display significant difficulty in social relationships.
The literature to date is not a great deal of help in making the distinction between hyperlexia being an Autistic Spectrum Disorder, or a separate, distinct language disorder. Importantly, though, it appears that in the latter instance the prognosis overall is quite good. They may use a few words but often they were echolalic. But over time the aloneness and self-stimulating behaviors decreased dramatically as language comprehension and expressive language improved.
The lengthy article is a comprehensive review of the literature to that date. One section of the article examines the relationship of hyperlexia to developmental disorders such as autism.
The author concludes that hyperlexia, while present in some children with Autistic Disorder, is not specific to Autistic Disorder or confined to that condition. Instead, hyperlexia can be seen in non-autistic persons, many of whom, however, do have transient autistic-like symptoms and behaviors. It has been my experience, based on cases that continue to come to my attention, that hyperlexia needs to be subdivided into three distinct categories: type I, type II and type III.
These are very bright, neurotypical children who simply read early to the amazement of their parents, grandparents, teachers, peers and parents of their peers. Usually one or both parents have read often and patiently to their children. Soon however the child is actually reading the words in the book, rather than just memorizing them, and that reading ability can then be transferred to other books. The child is a precocious reader at that point and is reading at a first or second grade level in pre-school, kindergarten or even before.
At some point, of course, most of the other children in the class catch up as they begin to read. This group of hyperlexic children constitute what I call early, or precocious readers. They are bright, neurotypical children who happen to read early. My youngest daughter Jill was such a child. Then one day it happened; JT read the book to her mother instead of the other way around. Not so. Mother gave JT a newspaper article she had never seen before and JT read it perfectly. At nursery school, JT read to her classmates to the astonishment of the teachers.
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With formal testing JT was reading at a 6th grade level at age 3 with full comprehension ability and certainly nothing other than neurotypical functioning. But her advanced reading skills continued to serve her well. She went on to become a successful attorney, and, of course, a mother who now reads regularly to children of her own.
Occasionally I will get inquires regarding what happens to neurotypical hyperlexic children when they grow up. This is how one such individual summarized his lifelong experience after having been hyperlexic as a child. Case Example 2 LM, now 34, began to read shortly before age 3.
She was obsessed with words and letters and was never without a book. She pointed out signs and other lettering everywhere and pointed out spelling errors and typos wherever they occurred. Reading was soothing no matter the story. LM was good at math and had musical talent as well, including perfect pitch. Social awkwardness was a problem as a child and LM had few friends. She was enrolled in a private school through a scholarship and without any formal instruction in English became fluent in English within that first year.
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Her social skills have largely normalized. LM finds her advanced reading skills continue and are incredibly useful in her profession. Her memory for verbatim sketches of text are very useful in legal research. Her colleagues admire her ability to spot typos at a glance and the very rapid reading ability continues to be an asset in her work. Therefore I have proposed the Hyperlexia I, II and III categories so that a vital distinction can be made between normal variants and skills in children who happen to read early, and those with true disorders.
While peers eventually catch up in reading skills, hyperlexia I ability bodes well for future academic success in those children with this special ability. They read voraciously usually with astonishing memory for what they read, often accompanied by other memorization tasks and abilities, sometimes linked with number or even calendar calculating skills.
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These cases include the several sub-types of autistic disorder such as classic early infantile autism, early onset autism or late onset, regressive autism to name several. Clinical presentation, course of the illness and prognosis are those seen in autistic spectrum disorders. However, as pointed out earlier, the precocious reading ability can be a valuable tool for teaching language and social skills.
This is a less frequently recognized form of hyperlexia overall. These children also read early, often show striking memorization abilities, and sometimes have precocious abilities in other areas as well.
For example, they may show unusual sensory sensitivity to sounds or touch or taste. Unlike children with Autistic Disorder, they are often very outgoing and affectionate with family, but reserved and distant with peers and would be playmates. They do tend to make eye contact and can be very interactive with persons close to them.
There may be fascination with, or intense insistence on, routine and resistance to change.